What Is Plant Physiology Definition

It was also found that several physiological processes are regulated by phytochrome, for example, seed germination, elongation and strengthening of the hypocotyll, formation of foliar rudiments and differentiation of primary leaves, xylem elements and stomata. Phytochrome has been found to induce the biosynthesis of enzymes involved in the formation of chlorophyll, chloroplasts and all bodies involved in photosynthesis. The discovery of several members of the phytochrome group, which appear to regulate phototropism, photoperiodism and some other functions, was also significant. This research has revealed important aspects of the regulatory functions of light in plant life. This area of plant physiology includes the study of all chemicals as well as the physical processes of plants. He understands everything. At the molecular level, it includes the interactions of photosynthesis. The process of diffusion in plants, minerals and nutrients in plants. Along with this, it also includes important processes such as plant growth, the resting phase of plants and plant propagation, which are the most important processes without plants being very difficult. The branch of science that deals with the study of the structure and function of plants and their parts is known as plant physiology.

The importance of plants is the same as that of any other living organism present on our planet Earth. Plants are essentially the reasons why most organisms survive on Earth. Plants provide us with oxygen by breathing. In addition, there are a number of sources that we will get from plants. We even get our food from plants. Plants meet all the basic needs of an organism. This topic of plant physiology will help you understand the functions and other important structures of plants. We know that plants are the organisms that prepare their own food, that is, they are autocross. Plants prepare their food through chlorophyll using sunlight.

There are certain structures in plants that help them prepare their own food. In this topic, you will learn more about these structures. Plant physiology gives you a brief overview of all parts of the plant and their functions. This way, you can easily learn how to prepare food from plants themselves. In the study of complex biological phenomena, plant physiologists today make extensive use of simpler element models. Such models contribute to the discovery of new patterns of absorption and assimilation of inorganic substance and water; in the absorption, conversion and storage of solar energy; and the subsequent use of energy in biosynthesis, growth, development and movement. From the molecular and subcellular level, plant physiologists study the cell, organs, organism and ultimately different communities – phytocenosis (plant community), biocenosis (biotic community) and biogeocenosis (ecosystem). Researchers discovered in the 1800s that plants absorb essential minerals in the form of inorganic ions in water. Under natural conditions, the soil acts as a mineral reservoir of nutrients, but the soil itself is not essential for plant growth. When the mineral nutrients in the soil are dissolved in the water, the roots of the plants easily absorb the nutrients, the soil is no longer needed for the plant to thrive. This observation is the basis of hydroponics, growing plants in an aqueous solution rather than in the soil, which has become a standard technique in biological research, teaching laboratory exercises, plant production and as a hobby. Historical sketch.

Plant physiology first developed into a branch of botany, which was primarily interested in the mineral nutrition of plants. The first experiments on the formation of plant tissues were carried out in 1629 by the Dutch naturalist Jan van Helmont. After five years of growing a willow branch in a pot filled with a weighted amount of soil, he found that the weight of the branch increased by 30 times, while that of the soil hardly changed. Van Helmont concluded that water, not soil, was the main source of plant nutrition. Although the conclusion is wrong, the experiment was of great importance as it was the first to use a quantitative (weighed) method. The sexual differentiation of plants was discovered at the end of the 17th century. In 1727, the Englishman S. Hales observed that solids and water pass through tissues.

From the point of view of plant physiology, carbohydrates can be divided into three general groups: simple sugars, polymer storage molecules (e.B starch, fructans) and structural polysaccharides (e.B. hemicelluloses, cellulose). From the point of view of equine digestive physiology, carbohydrates can be divided into two main groups: those that can be hydrolyzed into simple sugars in the small intestine and those that cannot be digested by mammalian enzymes, but rather undergo bacterial fermentation into volatile fatty acids. Carbohydrates with glycosidic bonds α-1,4 are subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (although they can also be fermented), while molecules bound β-1,4 must be fermented. Specific descriptions of carbohydrates include the following descriptions and are noted in the carbohydrate fraction scheme (Fig. 8.1). The roots grow underground and absorb water and nutrients from the soil. That is why they are an important part of the plant. Votchal was one of the founders of the Ukrainian School of Plant Physiologists. Other personalities of the school were V.R. Zalenskii, who discovered the role of aspiration in regulating water balance in plants; V. V.

Kolkunov, who noted that the anatomical structure of beet root is related to its sugar content; and V. N. Liubimenko, who proved that chlorophyll in chloroplasts is not free, but is bound to proteins. Much physiological knowledge of plants about fundamental processes has been gained through research based on a relatively small number of appropriate experimental plants or models (. B for example, beans, lettuce, corn, wheat and, more recently, Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., thale watercress) (Pitzschke, 2013). .